Completion of Phase 1 of the Mazze Testnet: A Rigorous Evaluation and Optimisation Process

7 min readApr 27, 2024


The Mazze blockchain represents a new approach to distributed ledger technology by integrating a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure, an architecture that deviates from traditional blockchain designs. This DAG-based configuration is inherently capable of achieving higher throughput and significantly reduced latency, addressing some of the most pressing limitations faced by conventional blockchain systems.

The initial phase of our testnet, referred as Phase 1, was strategically designed to set a robust baseline for the system’s overall functionality in a meticulously controlled environment. By deliberately limiting the network to a single node during this phase, we effectively simplified the operational complexity that typically arises with concurrent block generation observed in multi-node systems. This simplification was critical for several reasons.

First, it allowed our development team to observe and analyze the purest form of system behaviors without the often unpredictable variables introduced by node interdependencies and competition, which are common in distributed networks. This isolation is crucial in early testing phases where the focus is on understanding and optimizing the core architectural functions of the blockchain.

Second, this approach enabled us to methodically address and refine individual components of the system. By minimizing external interference, we could directly link observed behaviors to specific system elements or configurations, enhancing our ability to make precise adjustments. This level of control is particularly valuable when evaluating the DAG’s capabilities in handling transactions and blocks, as it ensures that any identified improvements or issues are a result of the system’s design rather than anomalies introduced by external factors.

The primary goal of this phase was to establish a clear and comprehensive understanding of how the DAG-based Mazze blockchain operates under controlled conditions. This understanding sets the stage for subsequent phases, where the network will gradually expand to include more nodes, thereby introducing the complexities of a truly distributed environment. The insights gained from Phase 1 are expected to significantly influence how we scale the network, ensuring that each step towards greater complexity is informed by a solid foundation of knowledge about the system’s fundamental operations. This strategic phasing is designed to streamline the progression from a single-node testnet to a robust, scalable multi-node blockchain network.


Phase 1 of the Mazze testnet was strategically implemented using a single-node setup to systematically eliminate the unpredictable variables typically associated with a multi-node environment. This approach was pivotal in allowing our development team to closely monitor system behavior and directly manipulate the blockchain’s operational parameters, such as block time and transaction processing capabilities, under highly controlled conditions.

The decision to operate the testnet in “throttled mode” was an integral part of our methodology. By deliberately restricting certain operational capacities, we were able to simulate a variety of network stresses and load conditions that the blockchain might encounter in more decentralized and expansive settings. This throttling not only tested the robustness and resilience of the system under artificially induced constraints but also allowed us to observe how changes in network parameters affect overall system performance. For instance, we could adjust the rate of transaction throughput and observe the impact on block processing times and system stability, providing invaluable data for tuning the blockchain’s efficiency.

Furthermore, this controlled environment facilitated a precise and methodical exploration of the DAG architecture’s capabilities, particularly in handling block generation and synchronization without the interference of competing nodes. It allowed us to isolate and scrutinize each component’s performance — from consensus algorithms to smart contract execution — ensuring that each element performed optimally before progressing to more complex network configurations. The insights gained from this phase were critical in preparing the blockchain for subsequent phases, where multi-node dynamics and more intricate inter-node interactions would introduce additional layers of complexity.

Observations and Modifications

During Phase 1 of the Mazze testnet, our rigorous monitoring focused on the DAG’s capacity for handling block generation and integration under diverse operational loads. Our initial findings revealed that the block time, originally set at three seconds, could be reduced to 2.5 seconds. This optimization was critical as it maintained network stability while improving throughput, a key performance metric for any blockchain environment.

This precise adjustment was facilitated by our controlled test environment, which allowed for detailed data collection and immediate application of modifications. For instance, we specifically examined the behavior of a deployed smart contract under these streamlined conditions. The smart contract was designed to execute transactions based on particular triggers within the blockchain, and our tests aimed to ensure that its operations were both predictable and repeatable.

In this phase, we verified the deterministic execution of the contract and identified several areas for refinement in our transaction validation algorithm. For example, during a scenario where transaction loads were incrementally increased, we noted that the response time began to lag, indicating a need for tweaks in transaction handling processes. By adjusting the algorithm to streamline transaction verification processes, we effectively reduced potential bottlenecks.

These insights proved invaluable for our rapid prototyping and iterative development approach, significantly shortening the cycle from concept to deployment. The ability to apply iterative updates and observe their immediate effects in a controlled, single-node environment enabled our team to refine system parameters with high precision. This environment not only expedited the testing phases but also reduced the complexity typically associated with deploying updates in a multi-node setup.

Furthermore, the adjustments to the block time and the improvements in transaction handling are expected to contribute substantially to the scalability and efficiency of the Mazze blockchain as we prepare to enter Phase 2 of our development. These modifications lay a solid foundation for the anticipated complexities of a distributed network, where the true robustness of the DAG structure will be further tested under more diverse and challenging conditions.

Security Enhancements

Pre-deployment security checks constituted a critical component of Phase 1, reflecting our commitment to ensuring the robustness and reliability of the Mazze blockchain. Within the controlled confines of the single-node test environment, our team conducted extensive vulnerability assessments and comprehensive stress tests aimed at identifying and rectifying potential security weaknesses. This included targeted attacks on cryptographic functions, smart contract audits to detect reentrancy, overflow, and underflow errors, and simulation of DDoS attacks to evaluate the resilience of the node under abnormal traffic loads.

This proactive security approach enabled us to iteratively refine the security measures, thereby significantly hardening the blockchain’s defenses before the potential risks associated with multi-node exposure. For instance, a specific scenario involved testing the blockchain’s response to artificially created transaction floods aimed at overwhelming the block processing capabilities. Observations from these tests guided optimizations in transaction handling mechanisms and buffer capacities, thereby enhancing the system’s ability to manage unexpected surges in network activity effectively.

By securing the blockchain’s foundation in a well-monitored, single-node environment, we were able to ensure that all identified vulnerabilities were addressed with precision. This rigorous testing and refinement phase was crucial for maintaining the integrity and trustworthiness of the Mazze blockchain, setting a high standard for security as we transition to the more complex challenges of a distributed network in Phase 2.

Rationale Behind Single-Node and Throttled Mode Operation

The choice to launch the Mazze testnet with a single node and in throttled mode was strategically made to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the initial development stages. By simplifying the network setup, we significantly reduced the overhead costs and complexities associated with multi-node synchronization, thereby allocating more resources to enhance performance and security. Furthermore, this configuration allowed our team to methodically test and optimize the network’s parameters in a predictable environment, laying a solid foundation for the more complex scenarios anticipated in Phase 2.
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Conclusion and Future Work

The successful completion of Phase 1 represents an important milestone in the evolution of the Mazze blockchain. This initial phase has not only validated the fundamental design concepts but also enabled the collection of extensive data and the implementation of strategic adjustments to optimize system performance. These developments have effectively set the stage for the next phase of the project.

Further refinement of network capabilities will also continue, with a specific focus on reducing the block time from 3 seconds to 2.5 seconds. This enhancement aims to improve transaction throughput and reduce latency, thereby increasing the blockchain’s appeal for real-time applications. The controlled, incremental decrease in block time will be closely monitored to ensure that it does not compromise the integrity or security of the blockchain.

The insights gained from Phase 2 will be crucial for preparing the Mazze blockchain for eventual public deployment. The objective is to create a decentralized platform that not only meets but exceeds the current industry standards for speed, efficiency, and security. Achieving these goals will significantly enhance the blockchain’s utility in various applications, from financial transactions to complex contractual agreements in the IoT and beyond.


We thank our dedicated team of developers whose expertise and relentless effort have driven the success of the Mazze testnet’s initial phase. Their commitment to advancing blockchain technology continues to propel our project toward innovative frontiers.

This approach to blockchain development not only underscores the technical rigor invested in the Mazze project but also highlights the strategic planning necessary to evolve such advanced systems in the realm of distributed ledger technologies.




Mazze is a Layer 1 blockchain that redefines performance through its PoW-based DAG architecture, achieving 40,000 TPS and 1s finality.