Addressing Shai’s Questions on Mazze Blockchain’s Protocol

6 min readMay 5, 2024


We are happy to acknowledge the interest shown by an individual, like Shai in our project. Shai (Deshe) Wyborski is a respected scholar holding a Ph.D. In quantum cryptography. Is also a co author of the GHOSTDAG protocol. His involvement with our project is not a privilege but an invaluable contribution.

Recently Shai raised some thought provoking questions regarding the consensus mechanism of our Mazze blockchain. This article aims to address his inquiries offering clarity not to him but to anyone keen on understanding how the Mazze blockchain achieves consensus.

It’s important to mention that the current whitepaper available on our website is version 1 which was crafted year when Mazze was still in its conceptual stage. We are currently in a phase where the technologies utilized in building our blockchain are undergoing testing and may undergo changes as we move towards a stable version ready for real world application. The upcoming version of our whitepaper will be more detailed leaving room, for further questions.

With this context in mind, let’s proceed with addressing Shai’s questions.

how is the block weight X of non-normal blocks works

The weight of special (non-normal) blocks typically serves to prioritize certain blocks over others based on specific conditions, such as increased network activity or security threats. The precise value of x might be dynamically adjusted based on network conditions or fixed as part of the consensus rules to deal with specific scenarios like forks or attack vectors. For instance, in the event of increased network activity or emerging security threats, such as potential attack vectors or forking incidents, the system might increase the weight to give these blocks precedence. This prioritization helps in managing the load and ensuring the integrity and security of the blockchain, by either accelerating the confirmation of critical transactions or by temporarily boosting the block’s influence in the network’s consensus process to mitigate potential disruptions. This dynamic adjustment of block weights ensures that the blockchain can remain robust and adaptable, optimizing performance and security based on real-time conditions and threats.

what is the function of normal blocks

Normal blocks are the standard units in the blockchain that carry transactions and other data. They usually have a consistent weight, making them the backbone of the blockchain’s regular operation. These blocks are primarily regulated by the basic consensus rules rather than varying difficulties, ensuring a steady flow of block production under normal conditions.

how are normal blocks regulated if not by difficulty

In contrast to special blocks, normal blocks might not be directly influenced by mining difficulty variations but by other parameters such as transaction volume or network congestion. This regulation ensures that under normal operating conditions, the blockchain remains efficient and scalable. When transaction volume is high, the system may increase the rate of block creation to accommodate the influx of transactions, ensuring that processing times remain optimal without causing a bottleneck. Conversely, during periods of lower transaction activity, the rate might decrease to conserve resources and maintain efficiency without compromising the network’s security or scalability. Additionally, other parameters like network health indicators - such as node availability or the time it takes for a block to propagate through the network - can also influence block regulation.

how the linear order is computed

When determining the sequence of transactions the system carefully examines the graph to find a path that maximizes the combined weight from the block to the block taking advantage of the graphs acyclic nature. Consequently blocks, on paths with weights are usually given priority in the history of the chain.

how are conflicts resolved

Conflicts like spends or diverging blocks are addressed using a set of established guidelines that focus on comparing weights of conflicting chains. When multiple chains branch out from a starting point due to forks or conflicting transactions the system evaluates the weight of each chain, which may be influenced by factors such as block count or overall mining difficulty for each chain. This weight evaluation serves as a measure of a chains trustworthiness and security reflecting the level of resources or financial investment dedicated to extending that particular chain. The chain, with the weight is recognized as having majority consensus and is chosen as the primary chain.

how fast does the ordering converge

The speed at which block ordering converges in the Mazze blockchain is impacted by factors, such as network latency. The time it takes for a block to spread across the network and block transmission times. How fast blocks are passed between nodes. Moreover the processing power of the nodes also has an influence. Therefore faster processing enables verification and inclusion of blocks, in the ledger.

does this hold for any honest majority or just in the honest case?

The systems strength lies in its core design that relies on a majority ensuring performance when most of the networks computational power is controlled by trustworthy nodes. This setup guarantees the integrity and security of the agreement process effectively preventing threats, like spending and attacks by the majority. The consensus protocol is built to withstand network challenges and potential attacks ensuring system stability and continuity. To address deviations from this scenario such as a portion of network power falling into the wrong hands or nodes behaving unpredictably the system incorporates protective measures like the Gossip Protocol. This protocol boosts node coordination and communication by sharing information across the network. Each blockchain node regularly exchanges data with a chosen group of nodes including updates, on blocks, transactions and network status.

Most DAG based approaches eventually suffer from liveness issues, I’m interested to hear how Mezze overcomes these issues

The Mazze blockchain tackles issues related to real time functionality often encountered in DAG based systems by implementing a set of algorithms and backup strategies that boost system resilience and guarantee seamless network performance.

In particular Mazze employs a structured tiered communication protocol, among nodes to uphold an updated and synchronized status throughout the entire network. This approach is crafted to prevent transactions from getting stuck due to inconsistencies or data propagation delays. Essentially nodes engage in information exchange in layers starting from peers to more distant nodes ensuring that all nodes share the same comprehensive view of the ledgers status. This facilitates prompt resolution of discrepancies in transaction data, across parts of the network.

Mazzes consensus algorithms are designed to adapt to changes, in network conditions. For instance when there is a volume of transactions or security threats arise the rules of consensus can be adjusted to increase communication between nodes. This means that nodes will check and exchange information frequently to prevent issues like forks or the acceptance of blocks. Moreover the validation criteria for blocks may become stricter requiring confirmations, from neighboring nodes before a block is considered valid. This ability to adjust ensures the integrity and continuous operation of the network under circumstances.

Also, within its consensus mechanism, Mazze includes predefined recovery pathways that are essential for maintaining the blockchain’s integrity and functionality during unexpected network disturbances, such as significant network partitioning or the collapse of critical network nodes. These recovery pathways are essentially a collection of predetermined procedures and rules tailored to swiftly bring the network back to a state of normalcy. For example, in the event of a network split, the system might temporarily adjust the consensus rules to expedite the reorganization of the DAG structure, ensuring that separate branches of the ledger can merge more efficiently once connectivity is restored. Similarly, during a critical node failure, other validation processes may be automatically initiated to rigorously scrutinize and discard any blocks that could exacerbate the disruption, thereby preventing the propagation of errors throughout the blockchain. Additionally, the network may activate emergency communication protocols (like specialized broadcast messages and redundancy protocols that replicate data across different network channels) that enable nodes to maintain synchronization with one another despite varying degrees of connectivity, ensuring that even if some nodes are isolated, they continue to operate in alignment with the broader network’s state. These mechanisms collectively ensure that the blockchain can recover from substantial disturbances with minimal impact on transaction continuity and network performance.




Mazze is a Layer 1 blockchain that redefines performance through its PoW-based DAG architecture, achieving 40,000 TPS and 1s finality.